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Pradhan Mantri Gramin Awas Yojana (PMGAY), also known as Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY), was launched by Rajiv Gandhi in 1985. Pradhan Mantri Gramin Awaas Yojana is a significant flagship social welfare program of the Ministry of Rural Development under the housing for all schemes. In this scheme, central and state government gives financial assistance worth up to ₹130,000 to poor people of the village to help them construct their own house.
A similar scheme for the urban poor was also launched in 2015 by PM Narendra Modi as Home for All by 2022. Pradhan Mantri Gramin Awas Yojana was introduced to promote housing for all. The main motive of the Pradhan Mantri Gramin Awas yojana was to provide pucca houses to all with all the necessary requirements. The scheme is applicable for the people who do not own any home or live in kutcha houses, which are severely damaged. Currently, the size of houses provided by the government under the Pradhan Mantri Gramin Awas yojana is 25 sq.mt.
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Overview of the Pradhan Mantri Gramin Awas Yojana
Under the PMGAY scheme, the government provides financial help worth RS120,000 in plain regions and RS130,000 in problematic areas (high land area) to construct homes. These homes are equipped with amenities like bathrooms, LPG, power connection, and drinking water [convergence along with different approaches, e.g., Swachh Bharat Abhiyan bathrooms, Ujjwala Yojana LPG, Saubhagya Yojana power link, etc. The homes are allotted to the name of women or collectively between husband and wife. The houses’ building is the beneficiary’s sole obligation, and the contractors’ involvement will be strictly prohibited. This strategy, working since 1985, provides subsidies and cash-assistance to individuals in cities to build their own homes themselves.
Till 1993 this scheme was available for only SC/ST category person, but in 1993-94, this scheme was extended to non-SC/ST groups also. From 1995 to 1996, this scheme was further expanded to widows or even next-of-kin of defence personnel killed in action, ex-servicemen, and retired members of the paramilitary forces who Want to live in rural regions provided that they meet basic eligibility standards.
Given that India has been a developing nation, the requirement of appropriate housing for the refugees and villagers continues to focus on the Government’s welfare strategies for the time of India’s Independence. Due to this, numerous welfare schemes, for example, House Sites cumg Building Assist Scheme, have been continuing since the 1950s. Still, it was just in 1983 a focussed fund for the production of home for scheduled castes (SCs), scheduled tribes (STs), and freed bonded labour was put up beneath the Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP). This gave birth to IAY from the financial year 1985–86.
Salient features of the Pradhan Mantri Gramin Awas Yojana
Mentioned below are the important features of the Pradhan Mantri Awas yojana-
- The cost of the construction of houses will be shared in the ratio of 60:40 between the central and state government, respectively, in bare areas, which means that Rs 1.20 lakh of financial assistance for each housing unit will be provided to the eligible families.
- The central government will provide the entire construction cost for the building in union territories. This scheme also includes the newest union territory formed in Ladakh.
- For Himalayan states, north-eastern states, and the rural areas of the other union territories. The financing ratio divide between the government is different. In this case, it is 90:10. This means that the central government will bear 90 percent of the construction cost, and only 10 percent will be managed or maintained by the state government.
- The beneficiaries are provided with the amount of 90.95 Rs per day of the unskilled labour from MGNREGS.
- The houses being constructed under this scheme will entirely focus on quality construction by employing a skilled worker who vanishes with good design and local materials.
- The families’ selection for this scheme is based on the different parameters of the Socio-Economic and caste census. (SECC) and these are then verified by gram sabhas in the later processing stage.
- The PMAGY scheme has connected with other central government schemes, such as the Swachh Bharat Mission Gramin (SBMG). Under this association, the assistance of up to Rs 12000 is provided in collaboration with MGNREGS to construct toilets.
The goal of Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana
The strategy’s broad function is to offer financial aid to a number of the weakest segments of society to allow them to update or build a home of decent quality for their private living. These authorities’ vision would be to substitute most of the temporary (kutchcha) homes from Indian villages by 2017.
The funds are allocated to the states according to 75 percent weightage of rural housing deficit and 25 percent weightage of poverty ratio. The housing deficit is according to the official printed amounts of the Registrar General of India, according to the 2001 Census.
A program is known as “AWAS Soft” was started in July 2010 to improve its improved management strategy.
According to the 2011 funding, the total capital allocated for IAY are put at $100 billion (US$1.4 billion) for building homes for BPL households with particular emphasis on the Left-Wing Extremist (LWE) districts.
Under the scheme, qualified men and women will find financial aid from the government amounting to $1.2 lakh (US$1,700) for building their homes in rural areas and also a sum of $12,000 (US$170) for building toilets. After the present provision of PMGAY, individuals should use it online.
Since 1985, 25.2 million homes have been constructed under the strategy. Beneath the Bharat Nirman Stage 1 job, 6 million homes had been targeted and 7.1 million assembled from 2005–06 into 2008–09. Further, 12 million households are intended to be renovated or constructed under the Bharat Nirman Phase two. In line with the official 2001 statistics, the entire rural housing deficit was 14.825 million homes. Therefore, one of the most important initiatives taken by the government of India.